Switzerland can in this context be compared to a EU/EEA-country, BUT as a non-EU citizen you can not include periods with stays in other EU-countries.
Only periods with stay in Denmark and other nordic countries can be included when calculating whether you meet the residence requirement.
Please read more in our article about the residence requirement.
So it will not make sense for you to join an A-kasse. Only after you have stayed in Denmark for 6 years it will be relevant to apply for A-kasse membership.
Generel comment about researchers:
Employed researchers have a subsequent job search period included in their residence and work permit. The Job-search period dont include a work-permit (only residence-permit).
However, If you apply for prolongation/new residence and work permit before the current expires, then you are also allowed to work in the waiting period while the immigration service processes your case. In this situation it should be possible to get unemployment benefits. But please get this confirmed by your A-kasse.
If employed researchers lose their job before time, they also lose their right to stay in Denmark legally, and thus cannot benefit from unemployment benefit.
Please comment here, if you need further assistance.